25BMI is based on the most up-to-date academic research. Please use the List of References below to explore and area of particular interest to you more thoroughly.


1.1          Orr, J.B., Food, Health and Income, Macmillan (London, 1937)

1.2          A. Astrup, ‘WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: time for a new approach?’, BMJ (2019); 366: 14137

1.3          J. A. Novotny, ‘Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically meas­ured energy values of almonds in human diet’, Am J Clin Nutr (2012); 96(2): 296-301

1.4          R. N. Carmody, ‘Cooking shapes the structure and function of the gut microbio11w’, Nature Microbiology (2019); 4(12): 2052-2063

1.5          C. Ebbeling, ‘Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure dur i11g weight loss maintenance: randomized trial’, BMJ (2018); 363: k4583

1.6          C. D. Gardner, ‘Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight loss in overweight adults’, JAMA (2018); 319(7): 667-679

1.7          S A. Chaix, ‘Time-restricted feeding prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice lacking a circadian clock’, Cell Metab (2019); 29(2): 303-319

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2.2          Yudkin, J., ‘Diet and coronary thrombosis: hypothesis and fact’, Lancet,  II, 155 (1957)

2.3          Yudkin, J., and J. Morland, ‘Sugar intake and myocardial infarction’,  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 20, 503 (1967)

2.4          Aykroyd, W.R., ‘The Story of Sugar’, Quadrangle (Chicago, 1967)

2.5          Deer, N., ‘The History of Sugar’, Chapman & Hall (London, 1949)

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2.8          Geerligs, H. C. P., ‘The World’s Cane Sugar Industry’, Norman Rodger (Altrincham, 1912)

2.9          Mintz, S. W., ‘Sweetness and Power’, Viking (Harmondsworth, 1985) Strong,· L. A. G., The Story of Sugar, Widenfeld & Nicolson (London, 1954)

2.10       E. K. Dunford, ‘Non-nutritive sweeteners in the packaged food supply – an assess­ment across 4 countries’, Nutrients (2018); 10(2): e257

2.11       D. G. Aaron, ‘Sponsorship of national health organizations by two major soda companies’, American Journal of Preventative Medicine (2017); 52(1): 20-30

2.12       K. A. Higgins, ‘A randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of 4 low-calorie sweeteners and sucrose on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2019); 109(5): 1288-1301

2.13       M. G. Veldhuizen, ‘Integration of sweet taste and metabolism determines carbo­hydrate reward’, Current Biology (2017); 27(16): 2476-2485

2.14       J. E. Blundell, ‘Low-calorie sweeteners: more complicated than sweetness without calories’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2019); 109(5): 1237-1238

2.15       J. Suez, ‘Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut micro­biota’, Nature (2014); 514(7521): 181-186

2.16       M. C. Borges, ‘Artificially sweetened beverages and the response to the global obesity crisis’, PLOS Medicine (2017); 14(1): el002195

2.17       F. J. Ruiz-Ojeda, ‘Effects of sweeteners on the gut microbiota: a review of experi­mental studies and clinical trials’, Advances in Nutrition (2019); 10: s31-s48

2.18       I. Toews, ‘Association between intake of non-sugar sweeteners and health outcomes: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and observational studies’, BMJ (2019); 364: k4718

2.19       J. Gornall, ‘Sugar: spinning a web of influence’, BMJ (2015); 350:h231 infographic

2.20       K. Daly, ‘Bacterial sensing underlies artificial sweetener-induced growth of gut Lactobacillus’, Environmental Microbiology (2016); 18(7): 2159-2171

2.21       K. Olsson, ‘Microbial production of next-generation stevia sweeteners’, Microbial Cell Factories (2016); 15(1): 207

2.22       Q. P. Wang, ‘Non-nutritive sweeteners possess a bacteriostatic effect and alter gut microbiota in mice,’ PLOS ONE (2018); 13(7); e0199080



3.2 (12 April 2019)

3.3          T. D. Spector, ‘Breakfast: a good strategy for weight loss?’ BMJ (2 February 2019)

3.4          K. Sievert, ‘Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials’, BMJ (2019); 364: 142

3.5          J. A. Betts, ‘Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?’, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2016); 75(4): 464-474; and K. Casazza, ‘Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research’, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2014); 55(14): 2014-2053

3.6          J. Kaczmarek, ‘Complex interactions of circadian rhythms, eating behaviors, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and their potential impact on health’, Nutrition Reviews (2017); 75(9): 673-682

3.7           D. J. Jenkins, ‘Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency’, New England Journal of Medicine (1989); 321(14): 929-934

3.8          K. Gabel, ‘Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: a pilot study’, Nutrition and Healthy Aging (2018); 4(4): 345-353; and R. de Cabo, ‘Effects of intermittent fasting on health, aging and disease’, New England Journal of Medicine (2019); 381: 2541-51

3.9          K. Casazza, ‘Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research’, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2014); 55(14): 2014-2053

3.10       K. Adolfus, ‘The effects of breakfast and breakfast composition on cognition in children and adolescents: a systematic review’, Advances in Nutrition (2016); 7(3): 590S-612S


4.1          F. N. Jacka, ‘Red meat consumption and mood and anxiety disorders’, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (2012); 81(3): 196-198

4.2          W. Willett, ‘Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems’, The Lancet (2019); 393: 447-92

4.3          V. Bouvard, ‘Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat’, The Lancent Oncology (2015); 16(16): 1599-1600

4.4          ‘Plant-based meat could create a radically different food chain’, The Economist ( I October 2019)

4.5          M. Dehghan, ‘Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prosperity’ cohort study’, The Lancet (2017); 390(10107): 2050-2062

4.6          X. Wang, ‘Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response nwi.1 analysis of prospective cohort studies’, Public Health Nutrition (2016); 19(5): 893 110!,, and A. Etemadi, ‘Mortality from different causes associated with meat, iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study’, BMJ (2017); 357: j 11>15

4.7          D. Srednicka-Tober, ‘Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis’, Br J Nutr (2016); 115(6): 994-1011

4.8          D. Zeraatkar, ‘Red and processed meat consumption and risk for all-cause mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, Ann Intern Med (2019); 171(10): 721-731

4.9          R. Rubin, ‘Blacklash over meat dietary recommendations raises questions aho111 corporate lies to nutrition scientists’, JAMA (2020)

4.10       8T. D. Spector, ‘Bacon rashers, statistics, and controversy’, (9 OctolH’1 2019)

4.11       J. E. Lee, ‘Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of A,11111 prospective cohort studies’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013); 8( I) 1032-1041


4.13       E. Lanza, ‘The polyp prevention trial continued follow-up study’, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention (2007); 16(9): 1745-1752; and C. A. Thomas , ‘Cancer incidence and mortality during the intervention and post intervention pc, 11111• of the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial’, Cancer Epidemic, Biomarkers and Prevention (2014); 23(12): 2924-2935

4.14       V. Bouvard, ‘Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat’, The Lancet Oncology (2015); 16(16): 1599-1600

4.15       A. Lopez, ‘Iron deficiency anaemia’. The Lancet (2016); 387(10021): 907-16

4.16       J. J. Anderson, ‘Red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer: UK Biobank cohort study and meta-analysis’, Eur J Cancer (2018); 90: 73-82

4.17       J. Poore, ‘Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consum­ers’, Science (2018); 360(6392): 987-992

4.18       C. A. Daley, ‘A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef’, Nutrition Journal (2010); 9(1): 10

4.19       M. Springmann, ‘Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits’, Nature (2018); 562: 519-52M. Springmann, ‘Health-motivated taxes on red and processed meat: a modelling study on optimal tax levels and associated health impacts’, PLOS ONE (2018); 13(11): e0204139

4.20       J. L. Capper, ‘The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007’, Journal of Animal Science (2011); 89: 4249-4261

4.21       A. Mentre, ‘Evolving evidence about diet and health’, The Lancet Public Health (2018); 3(9): e408-e409; and F. N. Jacka, ‘Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women’,American Journal of Psychiatry (2010); 167(3): 305-311

4.22       C. Pelucchi, ‘Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis’, International Journal of Cancer (2015); 136: 2912-2922

4.23       J. G. Lee, ‘Effects of grilling procedures on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons in grilled meats’, Food Chemistry (2016); 199: 632-638; and A. A. Stec, ‘Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elevated cancer incidence in firefighters’, Scientific Reports (2018); 8(1): 2476

4.24       C. L. Gifford, ‘Broad and inconsistent muscle food classification is problematic for dietary guidance in the US’, Nutrients (2017); 9(9): 1027

4.25       N. Bergeron, ‘Effects of red meat, white meat, and nonmeat protein sources on atherogenic lipoprotein measures in the context of low compared with high satu­rated fat intake: a randomized controlled trial’, Am J Clin Nutr (2019) Jun 4: online 27 EFSA, ‘Opinion of the scientific panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxy­acids’, European Food Safety Authority (2006); 4(1): 297

4.26       Fiona Harvey, ‘British supermarket chickens show record levels of antibiotic­resistant superbugs’, The Guardian (15 January 2018)

4.27       Felicity Lawrence, ‘Revealed: the dirty secret of the UK’s poultry industry’, The Guardian (23 July 2014)


5.1          D. Engeset, ‘Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort’, European Journal of Epidemiology (2015); 30(1): 57-70

5.2          N. K. Senftleber, ‘Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials’, Nutrients (2017); 9(1): e42

5.3          C. A. Raji, ‘Regular fish consumption and age-related brain grey matter loss’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2014); 47(4): 444 1151

5.4          M. C. Morris, ‘Fish consumption and cognitive decline with use in a large community study’, Archives of Neurology (2005); 62(12): 1849 185,,

5.5          D. S. Siscovick, ‘Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association’, Circulation (2017); 135(15): e867-e884

5.6          W. Stonehouse, ‘Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA.’ Relative per­formance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? evidence from clinical trials’, Nutrients (2014); 6(7): 2730-2758; and RE. Cooper, ‘Omega 3 polyun­saturated fatty acid supplementation and cognition: a systematic review & meta-analysis’, Journal of Psychopharmacology (2015); 29(7): 753-763

5.7          L. Schwingshackl, ‘Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017); 105(6): 1462-1473 9 M. Song, ‘Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause­specific mortality’, JAMA Internal Medicine (2016); 176(10): 1453-1463

5.8          T. Aung, ‘Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with CVD risks: meta­analysis of 10 trials involving 77,917 individuals’, JAMA Cardiology (2018); 3(3): 225-234

5.9          A. S. Abdelhamid, ‘Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease’, Cochrane Systematic Review (2018); 7: CD003177 

5.10       J. 0yen, ‘Fatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized con­trolled trial in preschool children’, BMC Medicine (2018); 16: 41

5.11       J. Poore, ‘Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consum­ers’, Science (2018); 360(6392): 987-992

5.12       J. E. Manson, ‘Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer’, New England Journal of Medicine (2019); 380: 23-32

5.13       A. G. Tacon, ‘Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds’, Aquaculture (2008); 285(1-4): 146-158

5.14       Y. Han, ‘Fishmeal application induces antibiotic resistance gene propagation in mariculture sediment’, Environmental Science and Technology (2017); 51(18): 10850-60.

5.15       A. V. Saunders, ‘Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets’, Medical Journal of Australia (2013); 1(2): 22-26

5.16       Patrick Whittle, ‘Plagues of parasitic sea lice depleting world’s salmon stocks’, The Independent (19 September 2017)

5.17       J. F. Gould, ‘Seven-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation’, JAMA (2017); 317(11): 1173-1175

5.18        Shehab Khan, ‘Scottish salmon sold by a range of supermarkets in the UK has sea lice up to 20 times the acceptable amount’, The Independent (29 October 2017)

5.19       Kimberly Warner, ‘Deceptive dishes: seafood swaps found worldwide’, Oceana Report (7 September 2016)

5.20       T. S. Galloway, ‘Marine microplastics spell big problems for future generations’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016); 113(9): 2331-2333

5.21       D. A. Willette, ‘Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants’, Conservation Biology (2017); 31(5): 1076-1085

5.22       E. Oken, ‘Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment’, Current Opinion in Paediatrics (2008); 20(2): 178-183; and S. K. Sagiv, ‘Prenatal exposure to mercury and fish consumption during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related behavior in children’, Archives of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (2012); 166(12): 1123-1131

5.23       Kahmeer Gander, ‘Fraudsters are dyeing cheap tuna pink and selling it on as fresh fish in £174m industry’, The Independent (18 January 2017)

5.24       R. Kuchta, ‘Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense tapeworm larvae in salmon from North America’, Emerging Infectious Diseases (2017); 23(2): 351-353

5.25       Jen Christensen, ‘ Fish fraud: what’s on the menu often isn’t what’s on your plate’, CNN (March 7, 2019)


5.27       A. Planchart, ‘Heavy metal exposure and metabolic syndrome: evidence from human and model system studies’, Current Environmental Health Reports (2018); 5(1): 110-124

5.28       A. S. Abdelhamid, ‘Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease’, Cochrane Systematic Review (2018); 7: CD003177

5.29       K. Iwata, ‘Is the quality of sushi ruined by freezing raw fish and squid? A rand­omized double-blind trial’, Clinical Infectious Diseases (2015); 60(9): e43-e48


6.1          J. R. Benatar, ‘Cardiometabolic risk factors in vegans; A meta-analysis of obsc1 v11 tional studies’, PLOS ONE (2018); 13(12): e0209086

6.2          H. Kahleova, ‘Cardio-metabolic benefits of plant-based diets’, Nutrients (2017); ‘)(H) 848

6.3          M. J. Orlich, ‘Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2’, JAMA Internal Medicine (2013); 173(13): 1230-1238

6.4          F. Barthels, ‘Orthorexia and restrained eating behaviour in vegans, vegetarians, and individuals on a diet’, Eat Weight Discord (2018); 2.\(.2): 1511 IM,

6.5          C. Losasso, ‘Assessing influence of vegan, vegetarian and omnivore oriented Westernized dietary styles on human gut microbiota’, Frontiers in Microbial (201H); 9: 317

6.6          V. F0nneb0, ‘The healthy Seventh-Day Adventist lifestyle: what is the Norwegian experience?’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1994); 59(5): 1124S-1129S

6.7          S. Mihrshahi, ‘Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort -the 45 and Up Study’, Preventative Medicine (2017); 97: 1-7

6.8          P. N. Appleby, ‘Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2016); 103(1): 218-230

6.9          G. Segovia-Siapco, ‘Health and sustainability outcomes of vegetarian dietary patterns: a revisit of the EPIC-Oxford and the Adventist Health Study 2 cohorts’, Eur Journal Clin Nutr (Jul 2019); 72(Suppl 1): 60-70

6.10       C. Whitton, ‘National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutritional intake , British Journal of Nutrition (2011); 106(12): 1899-1914

6.11       G. M. Turner-McGrievy, ‘A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet’, Obesity (2012); 15: 2276 2281

6.12       E. Fothergill, ‘Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” ” competition’, Obesity (2016); 24: 1612-1619

6.13       H. Lynch, ‘Plant-based diets: considerations for environmental impact, protein quality, and exercise performance’, Nutrients (2018); 10(12): 1841

6.14       P. Clarys, ‘Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects’, Nutrition Journal (2013); 12: 82

6.15       U N. Veronese, ‘Dietary fiber and health outcomes and healthy outcomes reviews and meta-analyses’, Am J Clin Nutr (2018); 107(.n: 436 444)

6.16       R. Pawlak, ‘The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin Bl2: a review’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014); 68(5): 541-548

6.17       H. E. Billingsley, ‘The antioxidant potential of the Mediterranean in patients at high cardiovascular risk: in-depth review of PREDIMED’, Nutrition and Diabetes (2018); 8(1): 13; and S. Subash, ‘Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neuro-Degenerative diseases’, Neural Regeneration Research (2014); 9(16): 1557 1506

6.18       M. J. Bolland, ‘Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review’, BMJ (2015) 351: h4580

6.19       T. A. Saunders, ‘Growth and development of British vegan children’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1988); 48(3): 822-825; and Mitchell Sunderland, ‘Judge convicts parents after baby dies from vegan diet’, Vice (IS June 2017)

6.20 (November 2019)

6.21       L. M. Haider, ‘The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Critical Reviews in Food Science Et Nutrition (2018); 58(8): 1359-1374


7.1 (28 January 2019)

7.2          A. Astrup, ‘WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: time for a new approach?’, BMJ (2019); 366: 14137

7.3          V. W. Zhong, ‘Associations of dietary cholesterol or egg consumption with incidents ofcardiovascular disease and mortality’, JAMA (2019); 321(11): 1081-1095

7.4          C. D. Gardner, ‘Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight lo,, in overweight adults’, JAMA (2018); 319(7): 667-679

7.5          M. Dehghan, ‘Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovasnrl:11 disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective’ cohort study’, The Lancet (2017); 390: 2050-2062

7.6          D. Mozaffarian, ‘Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: a comprehensive review’, Circulation (2016); 133(2): 187-225

7.7          D. Nunan, ‘Implausible discussions in saturated fat “research”; definitive solution, won’t come from another million editorials (or a million views of one)’, Br J Sport., Med (2019); 53(24): 1512-1513

7.8          R. Estruch, ‘Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean dil’I supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts’, New Engl J Med (2018); 378(25): c.14

7.9          C. N. Serhan, ‘Resolvins in inflammation’, J Clin Invest (2018); 128(7): 2657-2661/ 7 V. W. Zhong, ‘Associations of dietary cholesterol or egg consumption with incident of cardiovascular disease and mortality’, JAMA (2019); 321(11): 1081-1095

7.10       L. Pimpin, ‘Is butter back? A systematic review and meta-analysis of butter consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and total mortality’, PLOS ONV (2016); 11(6): e0158118


8.1          ‘Hidden salt present in popular restaurant meals’, BBC News online (II March 2013)

8.2          K. Luft, ‘Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure’, Klin Wochenschr (1987); 65(3): 101-9

8.3          M. Webb, ‘Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations’, BMJ (2019); 356: i6699

8.4          0. Dong, ‘Excessive dietary sodium intake and elevated blood pressure: a review of current prevention and management strategies and the emerging role of pharma­conutrigenetics’, BMJ Nutrition Prevention Et Health (2018); I: doi: 10.1136

8.5          K. Trieu; ‘Salt reduction initiatives around the world – a systematic review of progress towards the global target’, PLOS ONE (2015); 10(7): e0130247

8.6          N. A. Graudal, ‘Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pres­sure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride’, Cochrane Database Syst Rev (9 April 2017); 4: CD004022

8.7          F. P. Cappuccio, ‘Population dietary salt reduction and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A scientific statement from the European Salt Action Network’, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis (2018); 29(2): 107-114

8.8          A. J. Adler, ‘Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease’, Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2014); 12: CD009217

8.9          A. J. Moran, ‘Consumer underestimation of sodium in fast food restaurant meals’, Appetite (2017); II3: 155-161

8.10       K. He, ‘Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of over­weight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)’, Am J Clin Nutr (2011); 93(6): 1328-36

8.11       H. Y. Chang, ‘Effect of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality and medical expenses of elderly men’, Am J Clin Nutr (2006); 83(6): 1289-96

8.12       E. I. Ekinci, ‘Dietary salt intake and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes’, Diabetes Care (20ll); 34(3): 703-9

8.13       R. R. Townsend, ‘Salt intake and insulin sensitivity in healthy human volunteers’, Clinical Science (2007); ll3(3): 141-8

8.14       Q. Q. Yang, ‘improved growth performance, food efficiency, and lysine availability in growing rats fed with lysine-biofortified rice’, Sci Rep (2017); 7(1): 1389

8.15       L. Chiavaroli, ‘DASH dietary pattern and cardiometabolic outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses’, Nutrients (2019); 11(2), pii: E338 IS Caroline Scott-Thomas, ‘Salt replacements could be deadly, say renal specialists’ Food Navigator (19 March 2009)

8.16       U A. Mente, ‘Urinary sodium excretion, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality’, The Lancet (2018); 392(10146): 496-506


9.1          M. McCartney, ‘Waterlogged?’, BMJ (2011); 343: d4280

9.2          T. Spector, Identically Different, Weidenfelp & Nicolson (2012)

9.3          E. Brezina, ‘Investigation and risk evaluation of the occurrence of carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, their human metabolites and transformation products in the urban water cycle’, Environmental Pollution (2017); 225: 261-269

9.4          M. Wagner, ‘Identification of putative steroid receptor antagonists in bottled water’, PLOS ONE (2013); 8(8): e72472

9.5          J. R. Jambeck, ‘Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean’, Science (2015) 13; 347(6223): 768-71

9.6          F. Rosario-Ortiz, ‘How do you like your tap water?’, Science (2016); 351(6267): 912-914

9.7          L. M. Bartoshuk, ‘NaCl thresholds in man: thresholds for water taste or NaCl taste?’, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology (1974); 87(2): 310-325

9.8          D. Lantagne, ‘Household water treatment and cholera control’, Journal of Infectious Diseases (2018); 218(3): sl47-sl53

9.9          Z. Iheozor-Ejiofor, ‘Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries’, Cochrane Database of System Reviews (2015); 6: CD010856

9.10       A. Saylor, ‘What’s wrong with the tap? Examining perceptions of tap water and bottled water at Purdue University’, Environmental Management (2011); 48(3): 588-601

9.11       W Huo, ‘Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight:

a nested case-control study of the fealth Baby Cohort in China’, Environmental International (2015); 85: 96-103; and H. Gao, ‘Bisphenol A and hormone-associated cancers: current progress and perspectives’, Medicine (2015); 94(1): e211

9.12       EFSA, ‘Bisphenol A: new immune system evidence useful but limited’, EFSA Reports (13 October 2016)

9.13       P. G. Ryan, ‘Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment’, Proceedings Transactions Royal Soc B (2009); 364: 1999-2012


10.1       Peter Lloyd, ‘Deadly link between alcohol and breast cancer is “ignored by middle­aged women who are most at risk of developing the disease”‘, Mail Online (13 February 2019)

10.2 (2019)

10.3       A. S. St Leger, ‘Factors associated with cardiac mortality in developed countries with particular reference to the consumption of wine’, Lancet (1979); 1(8124): 1017- 1020; and A. Di Castelnuovo, ‘Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: an updated meta-analysis’, Archives of Internal Medicine (2006); 166(22): 2437-2445

10.4       R. Bruha, ‘Alcoholic liver disease’, World Journal of Hepatology (2012); 4(3): 81-90; and G. P. Jordaan, ‘Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder: a review’, Metabolic Brain Disease (2104); 29(2): 231-243

10.5­risk-of-cancer (8 January 2016)

10.6       S. Sabia, ‘Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study’, BMJ (2018); 362: k2927

10.7       K. A. Welch, ‘Alcohol consumption and brain health’, BMJ (2017); 357: j2645

10.8 (2019)

10.9       B. Xi, ‘Relationship of alcohol consumption to all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer­related mortality in US adults’, J. American College of Cardiology (2017); 70(8): 913-922

10.10     J. Holt-Lunstad, ‘Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review’, PLOS Medicine (2010); 7(7): el000316

10.11     A. M. Wood, ‘Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599,912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies’, The Lancet (2018); 391(10129): 1513-1523

10.12     M. I. Queipo-Ortufio, ‘Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biomarkers’, Am Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012); 95(6): 1323-1334

10.13     S. M. Ruiz, ‘Closing the gender gap: the case for gender-specific alcoholism research’, Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (2013); 1(6): el06

10.14     D. W. Lachenmeier, ‘Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach’, Scientific Reports (2015); 5: 8126

10.15     M. G. Griswold, ‘Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990- 2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016’, The Lancet (2018); 392(10152): 1015-1035

10.16     T. S. Naimi, ‘Erosion of state alcohol excise taxes in the United States’, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (2018); 79(1): 43-48

10.17     A. Chaplin, ‘Resveratrol, metabolic syndrome, and gut microbiota’, Nutrients (2018); 10(11): el651; and X. Fan, ‘Drinking alcohol is associated with variation in the human oral microbiome in a large study of American adults’, Microbiome (2018); 6(1): 59 20 C. I. LeRoy, ‘Red wine consumption associated with increased gut microbiota a-diversity in 3 independent cohorts’, Gastroenterology (2019); pii: S0016-5085(19): 41244-4

10.18     A. L. Freeman, ‘Communicating health risks in science publications: time for everyone to take responsibility’, BMC Medicine (2018); 16(1): 207

10.19     H.J. Eden berg, ‘The genetics of alcohol metabolism: role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants’, Alcohol Research and Health (2007); 30(1): 5-13

10.20     Z. Zupan, ‘Erosion of state alcohol excise taxes in the United States’, BMJ (2017); 359: j5623

10.21     V. Vatsalya, ‘A review on the sex differences in organ and system pathology with alcohol drinking’, Current Drug Abuse Reviews (2017); 9(2): 87-92

10.22     R. 0. de Visser, ‘The growth of “Dry January”: promoting participation and the benefits of participation’, Eur J Public Health (2017); 27(5): 929-931

10.23 (2019)


11.1       B. Lebwohl, ‘Long term gluten consumption in adults without celiac disease anti risk of coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study’, BMJ (2017); 357: jl892

11.2       V. Melini, ‘Gluten-free diet: gaps and needs for a healthier diet’, Nutrients (2019); 11(1): 170

11.3       I. D. Croall, ‘Gluten does not induce gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomized placebo trial’, Gastroenterology (2019); IS7: 881-883

11.4       J. R. Biesiekierski, ‘Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: piecing the puzzle together’, United European Gastroenterology (2015); 3(2): 160-165

11.5       U. Volta, ‘High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population’, Digestive Diseases and Science (2011); 46(7): 1500-1505

11.6       C. S. Johnston, ‘Commercially available gluten-free pastas elevate postprandial glycemia in comparison to conventional wheal pasta in healthy adults: a  double blind randomized crossover trial’, Food Funct (2017); 8(9): 3139 3144


12.1       H. Hemila, ‘Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold’, Coc/rr,11w Database of Systematic Reviews (2013) Jan 31; (1): CD000980

12.2       S. M. Lippman, ‘Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial’, JAMA (2009); 301(1): 39-51

12.3       S.U. Khan, ‘Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardio­vascular outcomes’, Annals of Internal Medicine (2019); 171(3): 190-198

12.4       S. M. Lippman, ‘Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial’, JAMA (2_009); 310(1): 39-51

12.5       K. Trajanoska, ‘Assessment of the genetic and clinical determinants of fracture risk: genome wide association and mendelian randomisation study’, BMJ (2018); 362: k3225

12.6       K. Li, ‘Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort’, Heart (2012); 98: 920-925; and J.B. Anderson, ‘Calcium intake from diet and supplements and the risk of coronary artery calcification and its progression among older adults: 10-year follow-up of the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)’, Journal of the American Heart Association (2016); 5 (10): e003815

12.7       F. Vellekkatt, ‘Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in major depression: a meta­analysis of randomized controlled trials’, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (2019); 65(2): 74-80; and D. Feldman, ‘The role of vitamin D in reducing cancer risk and progression’, Nature Reviews Cancer (2014); 14(5): 342-357

12.8       B. Ozkan, ‘Vitamin D intoxication’, Turkish Journal of Pediatrics (2012); 54(2): 93-98 6 H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, ‘Monthly high-dose vitamin D treatment for the prevention of functional decline: a randomized clinical trial’, JAMA Internal Medicine (2016); 176(2): 175-183; and H. Smith, ‘Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D on fracture risk in elderly men and women’, Rheumatology (2007); 46(12): 1852-1857

12.9       B. M. Burton-Freeman, ‘Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk fac­tors’, Advances in Nutrition (2014); 5(5): 457-485

12.10     J. E. Manson, ‘Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer’, New England Journal of Medicine (2019); 380(1): 23-32

12.11     B. J. Schoenfeld, ‘Is there a postworkout anabolic window of opportunity for nutrient consumption?’, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy (2018); 48(12): 911-914

12.12     M. C. Devries, ‘Changes in kidney function do not differ between healthy adults consuming higher- compared with lower- or normal-protein diets: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Journal of Nutrition (2018); 148(11): 1760-1775

12.13     A. S. Abdelhamid, ‘Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease’, Cochrane Systematic Review (2018); 7: CD003177


13.1       R. DuBroff, ‘Fat or fiction: the diet-heart hypothesis’, BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine (2019); 29 May, p. ii: bmjebm-2019-llll80


13.3       R. B. Acton, ‘Do consumers think front-of-package “high in” warnings are harsh or reduce their control?’, Obesity (2018); 26(11): 1687-1691

13.4       F. Goiana-da-Silva, ‘Front-of-pack labelling policies and the need for guidance’, Lancet Public Health (2019); 4 (1): PElS

13.5       R. Estruch, ‘Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet’, New England Journal of Medicine (2013); 368: 1279-1290

13.6       C. J. Geiger, ‘Health claims: history, current regulatory status, and consumer research’, Journal of the American Dietetic Association (1998); 98(11): 1312-1314

13.7       G. Ares, ‘Comparative performance of three interpretative front-of-pack nutrition labelling schemes: insights for policy making’, Food Quality and Preference (2018); 68: 215-225

13.8       G. Cowburn, ‘Consumer understanding and use of nutrition labelling: a systematic review’, Public Health Nutrition (2005); 8(1): 21-28

13.9       M. Cecchini, ‘Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behav­iours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies’, Obes Rev (Mar 2016); 17(3): 201-10

13.10     S. N. Bleich, ‘Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight’, American Journal of Public Health (2014); 104: e72-e78

13.11      J. Petimar, ‘Estimating the effect of calorie menu labelling on calories purchased in a large restaurant franchise in the southern United States: quasi-experimental study’, BMJ (2019); 367: 15837

13.12     J. S. Downs, ‘Supplementing menu labelling with calorie recommendations to test for facilitation effects’, American Journal of Public Health (2012); 103: 1604-1609


14.1       A. Bouzari, ‘Vitamin retention in eight fruits and vegetables: a coq1pari􀂟o11 111 refrigerated and frozen storage’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2011,), 63(3): 957-962

14.2       C. A. Monteiro, ‘Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in

14.3       E. M. Steele, ‘Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study’, BMJ Open (2016); 6: e009892

14.4       K. Hall, ‘Ultra-processed diets cause excess calorie intake and weight gain: an inpatient randomized controlled trial of ad libitum food intake’, Cell Metabolism (2019); Sl550-4131(19): 30248-7

14.5       C. A. Monteiro, ‘NOVA. The star shines bright’, World Nutrition (2016); 7(1-3): 28-38

14.6       L. C. Kong, ‘Dietary patterns differently associate with inflan1mation and 1-1111 11111·111 biota in overweight and obese subjects’, PLOS ONE (2014); 9(10): el09434

14.7       J. M. Poti, ‘Ultra-processed food intake and obesity: what really matters for health -processing or nutrient content?’, Current Obesity Reports (2012); 6(4): 420-431nineteen European countries’, Public Health Nutrition (2018); 21(1): 18-28

14.9       R. Mendoll ‘Ultra processed food consumption and risk of overweight and obesity’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2016); 104(5): 1433-1440; and D. Mozzofln, 11111, ‘Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men’, Nc•111 England Journal of Medicine (2011); 364(25): 2392-2404


15.1       M. Ding, ‘Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: sys­tematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis’, Circulation (2013); 129(6): 643-659

15.2       A. Crippa, ‘Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, CVD, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis’, Am Journal of Epidemiology (2014); 180(8): 763-775

15.3       J. K. Parker, ‘Kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide during the finish-frying of commercial French Fries’, J. Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2012); 60(32): 9321-9331

15.4       Boston Collaborative Dn1g Surveillance Program, ‘Coffee drinking and acute myo­cardial infarction’, The Lancet (1972); 300(7790): 1278-1281; and H. Jick, ‘Coffee and myocardial infarction’, New England Journal of Medicine (1973); 289(2): 63-67

15.5       Hannah Devlin, ‘How burnt toast and roast potatoes became linked to cancer’, The Guardian (27 January 2011)

15.6       B. Marx, ‘Mecanismes de l’effet diurctique de la caffeine’, Medecine Sciences (2016); 32(5): 485-490

15.7       Q. P. Liu, ‘Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Nutrition (2016); 32(6): 628-636; and G. W. Ross, ‘Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease’, JAMA (2000); 283(20): 2674-2679

15.8       M. Lucas, ‘Coffee, caffeine, and risk of completed suicide: results from three pro­spective cohorts of American adults’, World Journal of Biological Psychiatry (2012); 15(5): 377-386

15.9       C. Pickering, ‘Caffeine and exercise: what next?’, Sports Medicine (2019); 49(7): 1007-1030

15.10     B. Teucher, ‘Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort’, Twin Research and Human Genetics (2007); 10(5): 734-748

15.11     A. P. Winston, ‘Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2005); 11(6): 432-439

15.12     P. Zuchinali, ‘Effect of caffeine on ventricular arrhythmia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and clinical studies’, EP Europace (2016); 18(2): 257-266

15.13     M. Lucas, ‘Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women’, Archives of Internal Medicine (2011); 171(17): 1571-1578

15.14     J. Snel, ‘Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition’, Progress in Brain Research (2011); 190: 105-117

15.15     D. Gniechwitz, ‘Dietary fiber from coffee beverage: degradation by human faecal microbiota’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2007); 55(17): 6989-6996

15.16     EFSA, ‘EFSA opinion on the safety of caffeine’ (23 June 2015)

15.17     M. A. Flaten, ‘Expectations and placebo responses to caffeine-associated stimuli’, Psychopharmacology (2003); 169(2): 198-204; and C. Benke, ‘Effects of anxiety sen­sitivity and expectations on the startle eyeblink response during caffeine challenge’, Psychopharmacology (2015); 232(18): 3403-3416

15.18     C. Coelho, ‘Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins’, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2014); 62(31): 7843-7853

15.19     L. Mills, ‘Placebo caffeine reduces withdrawal in abstinent coffee drinkers’, Psychopharmacology (2016); 30(4): 388-394

15.20     A.G. Dulloo, ‘Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1989); 49(1): 44-50

15.21     M. Doherty, ‘Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta- analysis’, Medicine and Science in Sports (2005); 15(2): 69-78


16.1       J. Rhee, ‘Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of low birth weight: A Dose-response meta-analysis’, PLOS ONE (2015); 10(7): e0132334

16.2       D. A. Kennedy, ‘Safety classification of herbal medicines used in pregnancy in a multinational study’, BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine (2016); 16: 102

16.3       E. P. Riley, ‘Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview’, Neuropsychology Review (2013); 21(2): 73-80

16.4 (23 January 2017); and­Pregnancy? (February 2018)

16.5       C. H. Tam, ‘The impact of maternal gestational weight gain on cardiometabolic risk factors in children,’ Diabetologia (2018); 61(12): 2539-2548

16.6       V. Allen-Walker, ‘Routine weighing of women during pregnancy -is it time to change current practice?’, BJOG (2015); 123(6): 871-874

16.7       U F. Hytten, ‘Is it important or even useful to measure weight gain in pregnancy?’ Midwifery (1990); 6(1): 28-32; and M. G. Dawes, ‘Repeated measurement of maternal weight during pregnancy. Is this a useful practice?’, BJOG (1991); 98(2): 189-194

16.8       C. M. Taylor, ‘A review of guidance on fish consumption in pregnancy: is it fit for purpose?’, Public Health Nutrition (2018); 21(11): 2149-2159

16.9­will-i-put-on-during-my-pregnancy/ (18 October 2018)

16.10 /chapter /l-Recommendations#recommendation- 2-pregnant-women (July 2010)

16.11     S. Popova, ‘Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, The Lancet (2017); 5: e290-e299

16.12     U. S. Kesmodel, ‘The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child’s intelligence, attention, and executive function’, BJOG (2012); 119(10): 1180-1190

16.13     R. F. Goldstein, ‘Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, JAMA (2017); 317(21): 2207-2225

16.14     A. Gyang, ‘Salmonella Mississippi: a rare cause of second trimester miscarriage’, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2008); 277(5): 437-438; K. Ravneet, ‘A case of Salmonella typhi infection leading to miscarriage’, Journal of Laboratory Physicians (2011); 3(1): 61-62; and S. E. Majowicz, ‘The global burden of nontyphoidal salmonella gastroenteritis’, Clinical Infectious Diseases (2010); 50(6): 882-889

16.15     K. V. Dalrymple, ‘Lifestyle interventions in overweight and-obese pregnant or postpartum women for weight management: a systematic review’, Nutrients (2018); 10(11): el704.

16.16     D. L. Villazanakretzer, ‘Fish parasites: a growing concern during pregnancy’, Obstetrical Et Gynecological Survey (2016); 71(4): 253-259

16.17     C. Alvarado-Esquivel, ‘Miscarriage history and Toxoplasma gondii infection: a cross-sectional study in women in Durango City, Mexico’, European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (2014); 4(2): 117-122; and F. Roberts, ‘Histopathological features of ocular toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant’, Archives of Ophthalmology (2001); 119(1): 51-58

16.18     L. Holst, ‘Raspberry leaf – should it be recommended to pregnant women?’, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice (2009); 15(4): 204-208

16.19 (23 January 2017)

16.20     T. D. Solan, ‘Mercury exposure in pregnancy: a review’, Journal of Perinatal Medicine (2014); 42(6): 725-729

16.21     E. Ebel, ‘Estimating the annual fraction of eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis in the United States’, International Journal of Food Microbiology (2000); 61(1): 51-62

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16.24     C. Nagata, ‘Hot-cold foods in diet and all-cause mortality in a Japanese community: the Takayama study’, Annals of Epidemiology (2017); 27(3): 194-199

16.25     O. Koren, ‘Host remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy’, Cell (2012); 150(3): 470-480; and A. N. Thornburn, ‘Evidence that asthma 1s a developmental origin disease influenced by maternal diet and bacterial metabo­lites’, Nature Communications (2015); 6: 7320

16.26     A. Awofisayo, ‘Pregnancy-associated Jisteriosis in England and Wales’, Epidemiology and Infection (2015); 143(2): 249-256

16.27     M. Madjunkov, ‘Listeriosis during pregnancy’, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2017); 296(2): 143-152

16.28     Maggie Fox, ‘Prepared salads recalled for salmonella, listeria risk’, NBC News (19 October 2018)

16.29     M. Withers, ‘Traditional beliefs and practices in pregnancy, childbirth and post­partum: a review of the evidence from Asian countries’, Midwifery (2018); 56: 158-170


17.1       C. Hammond, ‘Unproven diagnostic tests for food allergy’, Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America (2018); 31(1): 153-163

17.2       2R. S. Gupta, ‘Prevalence and severity of food allergies among US adults’, JAMA Netw Open (2019); 2(1): el85630

17.3       B. P. Vickery, ‘AR101 oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy’, New England JournaI of Medicine (2018); 379(21): 1991-2001

17.4       Shayla Love, ‘Food intolerance tests are shoddy science and traps for disordered eating’, Vice (23 February 2018)

17.5       L. Wenyin, ‘The epidemiology of food allergy in the global context’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2018); 15(9): 2043

17.6       E. Yousef, ‘Clinical utility of serum specific IgE food testing in general practice: o tertiary care experience’, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2019); 143(2): AB275

17.7       R. A. Pretorius, ‘Maternal fiber dietary intakes during pregnancy and infant allergic disease’, Nutrients (2019); 11(8): 1767

17.8       D. Venkataram, ‘Prevalence and longitudinal trends of food allergy during childhood and adolescence: results of the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort study’, Clinical and Experimental Allergy (2018); 48(4): 394-402

17.9 Allergies.html (12 August 2019)

17.10     P. A. Eigenmann, ‘Are avoidance diets still warranted in children with atopic dermatitis?’, Paediatric Allergy and Immunology (2020); 1: 19-26


18.1       W. W. Tighe, ‘Time spent in sedentary posture is associated with waist circumfer­ence and cardiovascular risk’, International Journal of Obesity (2017); 41(5): 689-696

18.2       H. Fujita, ‘Physical activity earlier in life is inversely associated with insulin resist­ance among adults in Japan’, Journal of Epidemiology (2019); 29(2): 57-60

18.3       T. D. Noakes, ‘Lobbyists for the sports drink industry: example of the rise of “con­trarianism” in modern scientific debate’, Br J of Sports Med (2007); 41(2): 107-109

18.4       S. R. Chekroud, ‘Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1.2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015’, Lancet Psychiatry (2018); 5: 739-746

18.5       N. Casanova, ‘Metabolic adaptations during negative energy balance and potential impact on appetite and food intake’, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2019); 78(3): 279-289

18.6       D. M. Thomas, ‘Why do individuals not lose more weight from an exercise inter­vention at a defined dose? An energy balance analysis’, Obesity Reviews (2013); 13(10): 835-847

18.7       H. Pontzer, ‘Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity’, PLOS ONE (2012); 7(7): e40503

18.8       Alexi Mostrous, ‘Coca-Cola spends £!Om to counter links with obesity’, The Times (18 December 2015); and Jonathan Gorn all, ‘Sugar: spinning a web of influence’, BMJ (2015); 350: h231

18.9       M. Nestle, Unsavory Truth: How Food Companies Skew the Science of What We Eat, Basic Books (2018)

18.10     L. M. Burke, ‘Swifter, higher, stronger: What’s on the menu?’, Science (2018); 362(6416): 781-787

18.11     UK exercise guidelines: (30 May 2018); US exercise guidelines: (2019)

18.12     C.R. Gustafson, ‘Exercise and the timing of snack choice: healthy snack choice is reduced in the post-exercise state’, Nutrients (2018); 10(12): 1941


19.1       D. W. Kang, ‘Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders’, Anaerobe (2018); 49: 121-131

19.2       J. S. Lai, ‘A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014); 99(1): 181-197; and D. Recchia, ‘Associations between long-term adherence to healthy diet and recurrent depressive symptoms in Whitehall II Study’, European Journal of Nutrition (2019); 1: 1-11

19.3       C. F. Reynolds, ‘Early intervention to pre-empt major depression in older black and white adults’, Psychiatric Services (2014); 65(6): 765-773

19.4       J. Firth, ‘The effects of dietary improvement on symptoms of depression and anxi­ety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials’, Psychosomatic Medicine (2019); 81(3): 265-280; and S. Mizuno, ‘Bifidobacterium-rich fecal donor may be a positive predictor for successful fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome’, Digestion (2017); 96(1): 29-38

19.5       M. J. Walters, ‘Associations of lifestyle and vascular risk factors with Alzheimer’s brain biomarkers during middle age’, BMJ OPEN (2018); 8(11): e023664

19.6       F. N. Jacka, ‘A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the “SMILES” trial)’, BMC Medicine (2017); 15(1): 23

19.7       A. Sanchez-Villegas, ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial’, BMC Medicine (2013); 11: 208

19.8       M. Valles Colomer, ‘The neuroactive potential of human gut microbiota in quality of life and depression,’ Nature Microbiology (2019); 4: 623-632

19.9       I. Lukic, ‘Antidepressants affect gut microbiota and Ruminococcus flavefaciens is able to abolish their effects on depressive-like behavior’, Translational Psychiatry (2019); 9(1): 133

19.10     U S. E. Setti, ‘Alterations in hippocampal activity and Alzheimer’s disease’, Translational Issues in Psychological Science (2018); 3(4): 348-356

19.11     J. M. Yano, ‘Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis’, Cell (2015); 161(2): 264-276

19.12     S. Mizuno, ‘Bifidobacterium-rich fecal donor may be a positive predictor for suc­cessful fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome’, Digestion (2017); 96(1): 29-38

19.13     I. Argou-Cardozo, ‘Clostridium bacteria and autism spectrum conditions: a sys­tematic review and hypothetical contribution of environmental glyphosate Levels’, Medical Sciences (2018); 6(2): 29

19.14     P. Zheng, ‘The gut microbiome from patients with schizophrenia modulates the glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice’, Science Advances (2019); 5(2): eaau8317

19.15     E. Jakubovski, ‘Systematic review and meta-analysis: dose-response relationship of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depressive disorder’, American Journal of Psychiatry (2016); 173(2): 174-183

19.16     T. Akbaraly, ‘Association of long-term diet quality with hippocampal volume: lon­gitudinal cohort study’, American Journal of Medicine (2018); 131(11): 1372-1381

19.17     M. I. Butler, ‘From isoniazid to psychobiotics: the gut microbiome as a new anti­depressant target’, British Journal of Hospital Medicine (2019); 80(3): 139-145

19.18     F. N. Jacka, ‘Maternal and early postnatal nutrition and mental health of offspring by age 5 years: a prospective cohort study’, J A cad Child Et Ado/ Psych (2013); 52(10): 1038-1047

19.19     Felice Jacka, Brain Changer: How diet can save your mental health, Yellow Kite (2019)


20.1       George Monbiot, ‘We can’t keep eating as we are – why isn’t the IPCC shouting this from the rooftops?’, The Guardian (9 August 2019)

20.2       J. Milner, ‘Health effects of adopting low greenhouse gas emission diets in the UK’, BMJ Open (2015); 5: e007364

20.3       E. Soode-Schimonsky, ‘Product environmental footprint of strawberries: case stud­ies in Estonia and Germany’, J Environ Management (2017); 203(Pt 1): 564-577

20.4       W. Willett, ‘Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems’, The Lancet (2019); 393(10170): 447-492

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20.6       J. Poore, ‘Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consum­ers’, Science (2018); 360: 987-992

20.7       T. D. Searchinger, ‘Assessing the efficiency of changes in land use for mitigating climate change’, Nature (2018); 564: 249-253

20.8       D. Coley, ‘Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: a comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches’, Food Policy (2009); 34(2): 150-155


21.1       J. V. Tarazona, ‘Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with !ARC’, Archives of Toxicology (2017); 91(8): 2723-2743; and C. J. Portier, ‘Update to Tarazona et al. (2017): glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC’, Archives of Toxicology (2018); 92(3): 1341

21.2       E. T. Chang, ‘Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers’, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B (2016); 51(6): 402-434

21.3       Ben Webster, ‘Weedkiller scientist was paid £120,000 by cancer lawyers’, The Times (18 October 2017)

21.4 /Monograph Volumell2-l. pdf (20 March 2015)

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21.6       L. Hu, ‘The association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and organophos­phate pesticides exposure: a meta-analysis’, Environmental Pollution (2017); 231: 319-328

21.7       P. J. Mills, ‘Excretion of the herbicide glyphosate in older adults between 1993 and 2016’, JAMA (2017); 318(16): 1610-1611

21.8       R. Mesnage, ‘Facts and fallacies in the debate on glyphosate toxicity’, Frontiers in Public Health (2017); 5: 316

21.9       B. Gonzalez-Alzaga, ‘A systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure’, Toxicology Letters (2014); 230(2): 104-121; and Y. Chiu, ‘Association between pesticide residue intake from consump­tion of fruits and vegetables and pregnancy outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technology’, JAMA (2018); 178(1): 17-26

21.10     E. V. Motta, ‘Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiota of honey bees’, PNAS (2018); 115 ( 41): 10305-10310

21.11     F. Manservisi, ‘The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats’, Environmental Health (2019); 18(1): 15; and Y. Aitbali, ‘Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure affects gut microbiota, anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice’, Neurotoxicology and Teratology (2018); 67: 44-49

21.12     J. Baudry, ‘Association of frequency of organic food consumption with cancer risk: findings from NutriNet-Sante Prospective Cohort Study’, JAMA (2018); 178(12): 1597-1606

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